- An electric motor consists of the following essential components:
- In this design, the stator is a permanent magnet, while the rotor is a coil.
- The current flows through the brush and the commutator through the coil.
- When the current is increased, the rotor starts moving.
- This is achieved with the following principle:
- The coil is surrounded by a magnetic field.
- This field is directed in the way, that that the poles repel.
- The coil rotates almost 180 due to magnetic forces.
- For a short time the contact with the commutator is interrupted. There is no current flowing through the coil and no magnetic field.
- However, due to inertia, the coil continues to move.
- Now the current is flowing through the coil again. The north and south poles are reversed, so the rotor and stator repel each other.
- Every half turn the magnetic field changes.
- This motor is not running smoothly.
Multiple coils can improve the principle.